The four-masted barque (ex "Padua", built in 1926 in German) after being accepted by the Soviet Union as reparation, has had the name after Ivan Kruzenshtern since 1946 - the outstanding Russian seafarer, explorer and admiral (1770-1846).
More than ten geographical locations on the world map are named after this man. A reef, a strait and an island, and even a crater (since 1935) on the visible side of the Moon are among them. There is also a monument to Kruzenshtern opposite the Naval Cadet Corps on Lieutenant Schmidt embankment in St. Petersburg, as well as a harbor tug, the Airbus A-320 of Aeroflot and an international autoliner of the St. Petersburg transport company. This name was given to streets and avenues in dozens of cities and even to a secondary school in Rostock, Germany. Still, the first association people get is connected with the famous sailing ship "Kruzenshtern".
We don’t have the facts whose idea it was to name the "Padua" in honour of the famous seafarer. However, the name of the fearless actor of many naval battles, admiral - who organized the first Russian world expedition – became lucky for the vessel. The name enabled the vessel not only to stay afloat but also to have a new and successful destiny. The vessel acquired a “professional-educational-representative” function because now the board of the vessel is a "school under sails" for young sailors, as well as educational and diplomatic ground.
The descendant of a German noble family, the son of a judge, received the birth name - Adam Johann von Krusenstern, which was called "belonging to the descendants" by the Russian Emperor Alexander I in his royal favour and it turned out to be prophetic.
However, Ivan Kruzenshtern’s destiny was successful due to his strong character, iron will and devotion to the sea, and Russia, in the name and for the benefit of which he made a lot of really heroic, useful and important things, including the first circumnavigation. The expedition resulted in the triumph of Russian sailors, politicians, scientists, and became a new development direction of Russian diplomacy and trade. The interest in large-scale undertakings was repeatedly demonstrated by the barque "Kruzenshtern" which had taken part in two circumnavigations, a transatlantic expedition, winning prestigious races.
According to historical data Ivan Kruzenshtern was born in the Estonian province (now Estonia) near Reval (now Tallinn) in 1770 in the family estate. His father, Johann Friedrich, and his mother, Christine Frederick, were not rich nobles, but senthis son to study at the prestigious school – the Navy Cadet Corps. There he changed his name from Adam Johann to Ivan which sounded more comfortable for Russians. He took his patronymic from the best friend of Yuri Fyodorovich Lisyansky. It’s worth saying that their friendship has gone through many trials and lasted a lifetime. It was Lisyansky who Kruzenshtern entrusted the purchase of vehicles for the first Russian circumnavigation.
He didn’t complete his lyceum course due to his participation in the Russian-Swedish war battles and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant by merit. Then the officer of a certain determination and force started to study in England, and sailed the English vessels visiting America, Africa, the Bermuda islands, India and China. Most likely, it was then when he began thinking about the possibility of round the world voyages and the need to study trade routes for Russia.
His plans succeeded after the palace coup during Alexander I. It took Ivan Kruzenshtern and his crew three years to sail "Neva" and "Nadezhda". The voyages had a great international impact and practical importance. The Russian sailors made corrections in the English navigation maps considered to be the most accurate. The expedition discovered new islands, conducted scientific observations, amassed a rich collection, and conduction professional meteorological research and sailed the sea route from the European part of Russia to Kamchatka and Alaska for the first time in history. These proceedings gained well-deserved recognition. Kruzenshtern was promoted in rank and was elected as a member of the Academy of Sciences and the Admiralty Department.
After returning from the voyages the famed explorer deepened his knowledge in the matters of seamanship and hydrographic measurements, trying to determine the impact of the economy and commerce on geographical exploration and discoveries. He was also interested in the role of geography in the system of sciences, and its interconnection with physics, chemistry, philosophy and history. Moreover, Ivan was in correspondence with the outstanding scientists in the field of geographical research: the Englishman John Barrow, Humboldt, the cartographer Espinosa and other well-known people of the time.
Having been awarded the Orders of St. George, St. Vladimir, St. Anne, St. Alexander Nevsky (and diamond badges to it), Kruzenshtern donated the third of his fortune to the people's militia in the War of 1812. During this time he tried a new activity, joining the diplomatic mission in London. After the end of the Napoleonic wars, the great seafarer was involved in organizing the expedition of O. Kotzebue, and later the ones of Bellingshausen and Lazarev, that culminated in the discovery of Antarctica.
Withdrawn from maritime affairs, on sick leave, Kruzenshtern continued his scientific studies in his estate. He completed his work on a book about the circumnavigation and presented several proceedings to the Admiralty, emphasizing the need to draw up "the Universal Marine Atlas". After the release of the Atlas, the publication of which was funded by the Emperor Alexander, Kruzenshtern became known as the first hydrographer of the Pacific Ocean in Russia and Europe. The atlas itself was far beyond hydrography: together with the materials on the world expedition he greatly contributed to the further development of the earth sciences.
Since 1827, the famous scientist and explorer, promoted to the rank of the vice-admiral, had been the director of the Navy Cadets Corps, where he significantly improved the life of cadets. At the same time, he worked in many scientific institutions. With the active participation of the Admiral i the Russian Geographical Society (RGS) was organized which became one of the most powerful and influential in the world.
Kruzenshtern passed away on August 24, 1846 in his manor in Asa. He was buried in Revel (now Tallin) in the Dome Church. His son, Pavel Ivanovich, and grandson Pavel Pavlovich “inherited the helm”. Both of them became famous explorers who studied the northeastern coast of Asia, the Caroline Islands, and other islands of the Pechorsky District and the northern part of the Ob estuary.
In addition to "Atlas of the South Sea" (with explanatory text), Ivan Kruzenshtern wrote the book "Journey around the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806 at the Command of his Imperial Majesty Alexander I in the Ships Nadezhda and Neva". The abridged version of the book was republished in 1950.
The descendants of Kruzenshtern who live in various European countries, stay touch with the barque, get involved in activities, replenish the ship’s museum with valuable gifts and souvenirs. The barque, in its turn, adheres to the Russian maritime traditions glorifying the name of the great seafarer and the higher institution.